Smith, H. E., Stair, K. S., Blackburn, J. J., & Easley, M. (2018). Is there an app for that?: Describing smartphone availability and educational technology adoption level of Louisiana school-based agricultural educators. Journal of Agricultural Education, 59(1), 238-254.


The purpose of this study was to describe smartphone availability and usage for teaching by agricultural educators in Louisiana.  Further, this study sought to describe the level of educational technology adoption of these teachers.  Data were collected at each Louisiana FFA Leadership Camp session during the summer of 2016. Teachers were asked to indicate the availability of smartphones for instructional purposes at their school. Teachers also indicated instructional technologies they are using currently, as well as their self-perceived level of adoption of educational technology. Over half of the teachers indicated their district policy allowed teachers to employ smartphones for educational purposes. Less than one-third of the teachers were in districts that allowed students to use smartphones for learning.  The classroom computer and digital projector were the most commonly utilized educational technologies. The highest percentage of teachers perceived themselves as letting others adopt technologies before they are willing to try. The results of this study are in line with the Diffusions of Innovations theory in terms of percentages of teachers in the adopter categories. It is recommended that teacher professional development opportunities be developed following the model of teacher change to ensure agriculture teachers receive up-to-date information to further their practice.

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