Velez, J. J., Clement, H. Q., & McKim, A. J. (2018). National participation in school-based agricultural education: Considering ethnicity, sex, and income. Journal of Agricultural Education, 59(1), 189-203.


An empirical understanding of the value school-based agricultural education (SBAE) offers has been limited due to lack of widespread, longitudinal studies addressing the impacts of student participation in SBAE. Grounded in the theory of involvement, data from a nation-wide, longitudinal study were analyzed to explore ethnicity and income among students with varying levels of vocational club and SBAE involvement. Results indicated Black males had high involvement in non-SBAE vocational clubs but low involvement in SBAE-vocational clubs. Black and Hispanic females enrolled in SBAE at rates close to the percentages in the high school population, however, Black and Hispanic females rarely attained officer roles in SBAE-vocational clubs. White females, on the other hand, dominated officer roles within SBAE vocational clubs. Results also indicate females enrolled in SBAE who served as officers earned an additional $10,507 annually compared to non-SBAE, female officers. However, regarding the impact of involvement in SBAE on males who serve as officers, results indicate decreased income compared to their non-SBAE peers. Findings are discussed in relation to the theory of involvement, with an emphasis on recommendations for further research.

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