Krysher, S., Robinson, J.S. and Edwards, M.C. (2015). How time allocation impacts teacher efficacy of student teaching interns in agricultural education: A Q-sort Study. Journal of Agricultural Education, 56(2), 93-109. doi: 10.5032/jae.2015.02093


Several studies in agricultural education have assessed teacher self-efficacy of novice, first-year, and veteran teachers. Likewise, numerous studies have assessed the time students spend at their cooperating centers. However, a need existed to understand the influence of time allocation on teacher self-efficacy in a way that enabled human subjectivity to be considered, i.e., Q-methodology. The study found that three intern views existed at Oklahoma State University in agricultural education: Self-Assured Teachers, Determined Teachers, and Emerging Teachers. The Self-Assured Teachers spent the most amount of time teaching when compared to the other two views. Determined Teachers spent the most amount of time observing, and Emerging Teachers spent the most amount of time in school. The findings have implications for student teacher placements in cooperating centers and pre-service teachers' early field-based experiences in agricultural education. 

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