Paulsen, T. H., Clark, T. K., & Anderson, R. G. (2016). Using the tuning protocol to generate peer feedback during student teaching lesson plan development. Journal of Agricultural Education, 57(3), 18-32. doi: 10.5032/jae.2016.03018


Self-adequacy during the student teaching experience is high on the list of concerns expressed by student teachers (Fritz & Miller, 2003; Ng, Nicholas, & Williams, 2010). That factor, in combination with others, determines student teachers’ goals and sparks their motivation to engage in effective instructional planning (Baylor & Kitsantas, 2005). The purpose of this study was to determine student teachers’ perceptions of the use of the tuning protocol, a formalized process of reflective practice and peer review (Allen & McDonald, 1993; Easton, 2009), to revise lesson plans. When open coding was used to analyze student teachers’ perceptions, four themes emerged: benefits, drawbacks, structure of the tuning protocol, and recommendations for future use. The majority of student teachers were satisfied with the outcomes of the tuning protocol review process and planned to use it in their professional careers. Recommendations for use of the tuning protocol in various stages of the teacher education program are presented. 

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