Foster, D. D. & Whittington, M. S. (2017). Instructors’ use of the principles of teaching and learning during college class sessions. Journal of Agricultural Education, 58(4) 98-109.


The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency of utilization of the Principles of Teaching and Learning (Newcomb, McCracken, Warmbrod, & Whittington, 2004) during class sessions. Process-product research was implemented (Gage, 1972; Rosenshine & Furst, 1973) using the Principles of Teaching and Learning Assessment (PTLA). Frequency of use of the Principles of Teaching and Learning (PTL) was measured in six-minute intervals (Webb, 1970) during college class sessions. The PTL most evidenced was Principle 10:  Directed learning is more effective than undirected learning. The PTL least evidenced was Principle 15: Transfer of learning is more likely to take place when what is to be transferred is a generalization, a general rule, or a formula. Recommendations included professional development for faculty regarding improved teaching through the use of the PTL, and specifically, awareness of the existence of the PTL, and examples of implementation of the PTL into classroom teaching. It was recommended both incoming and established faculty participate in faculty development regarding PTL. Further research should be conducted using process-product research to describe PTLs that most influence student achievement. In addition, research should be conducted to describe quality and intensity of the evidence of the presence of PTL during class sessions.

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