Diaz, J. M., Warner, L. A., & Webb, S. T.  (2018). Outcome framework for school garden program development and evaluation: A Delphi approach. Journal of Agricultural Education, 59(2), 143-166 https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2018.02143


School gardens programs and garden-based education are positioned to become fixtures in educational institutions given recent trends and the national interest in gardens at school sites. Agricultural education professionals have integrated school gardens into core science, social studies, math, and language arts courses as well as agricultural education programs for elementary, middle, and high school curriculum. The literature shows that while there are specific curriculum links being made, school garden programs elicit a multitude of benefits in addition to enhancing student performance. Although the literature outlines an extensive set of impacts that may result from a school garden program, they are grounded in a specific case or intervention. Those who are planning for and evaluating school garden programs are left to make connections based on case study results or intervention trials, which leaves plenty of room for error. We utilized the Delphi approach with a panel of 74 experts to identify consensus on 38 outcomes that should be used to inform program development and evaluation efforts. Agricultural education professionals and other stakeholders connected to school gardens can use the results of this study to provide a solid foundation for an outcome-driven school garden program.

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