Volume 40 - Number 4 - 1999 | DOI: 10.5032/jae.1999.04028



This study sought to investigate the effects of response shzft bias on outcomes using a self-report measure in a leadership development course. While students in this study rated themselves as having a "high " level of leadership skill at the end of the course, significant differences were found between their self-report ratings using the pretest/posttest and the then/posttest approach. The degree of response shift (then/post pre/post comparison) was also significant. The findings from this study together with other studies cited suggest that when employing self-report measures, the then/post approach provides a less conservative and more accurate means of assessing leadership skill development than would the traditional pretest/posttest approach.

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