Volume 39 - Number 4 - 1998 | DOI: 10.5032/jae.1998.04018



A randomized post-test-only experimental design with a counter-balanced internal replication was conducted to determine the effects of reinforcement method (worksheet or hands-on activity) and student gender on immediate and delayed cognitive achievement in two physical science subject matter areas (Ohm 's Law and simple machines). Students enrolled in seven purposively selected Agricultural Science and Technology classes (N = 132) in five school districts participated in the study.


The experimental results were stable across both subject matter areas. The main effect of method of reinforcement produced no significat differences in either immediate or delayed cognitive posttest scores. There was no significant interaction between the two main effects (method of reinforcement or gender). However, there were significant differences in both immediate and delayed cognitive posttest scores based on teh main effect of gender, with females scoring higher than males on each of the four posttests.

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