Gilliam, K. C., Rayfield, J., Baker, M., Ritz, R., & Cummings, G. (2020). Perceptions of undergraduate agricultural education students on the effects of question difficulty and post-question wait-time on cognitive and emotional processes. Journal of Agricultural Education, 61(4), 317-328.

The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of undergraduate agricultural students on the
cognitive and emotional processes produced after exposure to low- and high-level questions, as well
as the effects of post-question wait-time to determine the benefits of differing lengths of post-question
wait-time based on the level of question. Forty students were shown four different treatment videos in
this with-in subjects design, with each video being followed by either a low- or high-level question.
Following each question, a wait-time period of either five seconds or ten seconds was employed before
the subjects were instructed to answer the question. The student perceptions resulted in a difference
between low- and high-level questions on question difficulty, variability in cognitive engagement, and
positive and negative emotions, as well as a difference on their perceptions of what constituted an
adequate amount of post- question wait-time for low- and high-level questions.

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