Harder, A., Roberts, G., & Lindner, J. (2021). Commonly accepted theories, models, and philosophies: The subjective norms of our discipline(s). Journal of Agricultural Education, 62(1), 196-211. http://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2021.01196

Inconsistent terminology used to describe agricultural education has plagued the profession for years.
Colloquial terms such as “big A” or “little a” used to differentiate meaning demonstrate the struggle
to clearly identify agricultural education within the academe. We sought to identify the subjective
norms of the four specializations commonly considered to comprise agricultural education to determine
if a single discipline or multiple disciplines exist. A national Delphi panel was convened consisting of
nominated experts representing agricultural communication, agricultural leadership, extension
education, and school-based agricultural education. The panels separately identified the commonly
accepted theories, models, and philosophies within their respective specializations in the first two
rounds. Then, panelists evaluated all consensus items from the second round in the final round to
determine commonalities across specializations. Across the specializations, consensus items related to
change theories, teaching and learning theories, and shared philosophies. However, enough variation
existed within the findings to suggest agricultural education is not a single discipline. We discuss
possible consequences for the future of our profession based on this finding, including how our
subjective norms may influence publication decisions, engagement with professional associations, and
departmental composition.

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