Lamm, K. W., Pike, L., Edgar, D. W., & Powell, A. (2022). Evaluating the impacts of 4-H participation: Development and preliminary validation of a scale. Journal of Agricultural Education, 63(2), 115-126. https://doi.org/10.5032/jae.2022.02115
Abstract: Ensuring that the experiences provided by Extension, including those associated with the 4-H program, are impactful to participants is of paramount importance. To ensure the continued success and relevance of the 4-H program, it is crucial for practitioners to measure the impact of 4-H involvement and use these results to develop highly impactful programs. This study proposed and validated the Impacts of 4-H scale. The scale was developed based on previous research and literature review. Based on content, response process, and internal structure validation, a single factor consisting of eight items was proposed. The results of the study indicate the proposed scale may provide a valid and reliable measure to capture, quantify, and report the impacts associated with participating in the 4-H program. Additional recommendations for future research and practice are provided.