Assessment of agronomy extension education programs on empowerment of farmers in food production in rural Uganda


  • Samuel Ikendi University of California - Merced
  • Francis Owusu
  • Ann Oberhauser
  • Dorothy Masinde
  • Carmen Bain



Agronomy and land use, Capacity building, Knowledge comprehension and retention, Food production, Postharvest technologies


The government of Uganda has since the 1950s adopted different agricultural extension education approaches to build the human resource capacity of farmers. However, limited extension agents always hampered its progress which necessitated partnerships with organizations across the globe. This study assessed progress made by the U.S.-based [NGO1] in building the capacity of farmers in agronomy and postharvest practices in rural [District], Uganda. We surveyed 454 households, of whom (219) 48.2% had trained in agronomy and postharvest practices between the 2014-2018 assessment period. The majority (58.4%) trained in seven modules assessed including soils, composting, land-use planning, agronomical practices, micronutrient gardening, postharvest, and marketing. By frequency of training, 55.7% trained between 1-7 of 21 maximum rounds. We found a higher average score of 84.7% in knowledge comprehension and retention in the assessment. In application, trainees engaged most in micronutrient gardening using sack, keyhole, and kitchen gardens; used tarpaulins while drying crop harvest; and had harvest reserves for food security. We also assessed changes in production and established a general decrease in households’ engagement in production between 2014-2018 for all seven crops traced in this study including amaranths, soybeans, millet, maize, beans, potatoes, and cassava. With livelihood assessments, most changes were attributed to food production, especially cassava, potatoes, and beans; income was mostly linked to sales from maize, millet, and beans. We recommend improvements in field monitoring to foster participation in training and the adoption of agronomical practices, and more cooperation with universities for extension expertise training with service-learning.


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Author Biographies

Francis Owusu

Francis Owusu | Professor and Chair | Department of Community and Regional Planning | Iowa State University | Office: 146 College of Design | 715 Bissell Road Ames, IA 50011 | 515-294-7769 |

Ann Oberhauser

Ann Oberhauser | Professor | Department of Sociology | Iowa State University | Office: 217B East Hall | 510 Farm House Lane, Ames, IA 50011 | 515-294-9283 |

Dorothy Masinde

Dorothy Masinde | Teaching Professor | Global Resource Systems | Associate Director | Center for Sustainable Rural Livelihoods | Office: 245 Horticulture | 2206 Osborn Dr, Ames, IA 50011 | 515-294-0029 |

Carmen Bain

Carmen Bain | Associate Dean for Academic Innovation | College of Agriculture and Life Sciences | Professor | Department of Sociology | Office: 20A Curtiss Hall | 510 Farm House Lane, Ames, IA 50011 | 515 294-9895 |




How to Cite

Ikendi, S., Owusu, F., Oberhauser, A., Masinde, D., & Bain, C. (2024). Assessment of agronomy extension education programs on empowerment of farmers in food production in rural Uganda. Journal of Agricultural Education, 65(1), 99–125.



Journal of Agricultural Education

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