Assessing the Effects of Virtual Cue Implementation in Virtual Reality Welding Training


  • Brittney Heibel Texas State University
  • Ryan Anderson Texas State University
  • Marshall Swafford Maagnes LLC
  • Bradley Borges Texas State University


Welding Education, Virtual Reality, Virtual Cues, Agricultural Mechanics, virtual welding


Incorporating virtual reality (VR) technology into training environments has proven effective because it allows training to remain safe, efficient, and meaningful. Welding training is no exception, with research exhibiting benefits such as decreased welder anxiety, increased cost- and time-efficiency, reduction in material usage, and advanced levels of skill acquisition. Our research aims to provide meaningful and experiential learning to beginner welders, equipping them with entry-level welding skills while identifying their professional development needs by employing various parameter cues using the Lincoln Electric VRTEX 360 Welding Simulator. This four-week study was completed at [STATE] University and replicated three times. Undergraduate (N=108) students enrolled in Introduction to Agricultural Engineering, randomized into one of three sequence training groups, served as our participants. All participants performed single-pass 2F welds using the Gas Metal Arc Welding process. On average, results indicate the most difficult parameter to master was Travel Speed, while the most straightforward parameter was Contact-to-Workpiece-Distance. Assessing the three sequence training groups individually, we find that the Travel Speed parameter is consistently the most difficult to master, however, as participant welding experience increased, so did their welding parameter scores.


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How to Cite

Heibel, B., Anderson, R., Swafford, M., & Borges, B. (2024). Assessing the Effects of Virtual Cue Implementation in Virtual Reality Welding Training. Journal of Agricultural Education, 65(2), 413–428. Retrieved from



Journal of Agricultural Education

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