Instructors' Use of the Principles of Teaching and Learning During College Class Sessions


  • Daniel D. Foster Pennsylvania State University
  • M. Susie Whittington The Ohio State University



Principles of Teaching and Learning, PT&L assessment, effective teaching, engaged learning


The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency of utilization of the Principles of Teaching and Learning (Newcomb, McCracken, Warmbrod, & Whittington, 2004) during college class sessions. Process-product research was implemented (Gage, 1972; Rosenshine & Furst, 1973) using the Principles of Teaching and Learning Assessment (PTLA) (Foster & Whittington, 2010). Frequency of use of the Principles of Teaching and Learning (PT&L) was measured in six-minute intervals (Webb, 1970) during class sessions. The PT&L most present during classes was: Directed learning is more effective than undirected learning. The PT&L least present during classes was: Transfer of learning is more likely to take place when what is to be transferred is a generalization, a general rule, or a formula. Recommendations included professional development for faculty regarding awareness of the existence of the PT&L, and examples of implementation of the PT&L into classroom learning environments. It was recommended that both incoming and established faculty participate in faculty development regarding PT&L. Further research should be conducted using process-product methodology to describe principles of teaching and learning that most influence student achievement. In addition, research should be conducted to describe quality and intensity of the presence of the PT&L during class sessions.


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How to Cite

Foster, D. D., & Whittington, M. S. (2017). Instructors’ Use of the Principles of Teaching and Learning During College Class Sessions. Journal of Agricultural Education, 58(4), 98–109.




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